On October 27, 1991, Turkmenistan became independent state, and since then this date is marked as the Independence Day. On December 12, 1995, Turkmenistan was recognized as a permanently neutral state by the resolution of the UN General Assembly with the unanimous support of 185 member states. At present Turkmenistan established diplomatic relations with 140 countries.
Turkmenistan is a democratic, legal, secular state. The form of government is a Presidential republic. The political structure of the Turkmen state is formed in accordance with the Constitution of Turkmenistan, adopted on May 18, 1992 (the new version on September 26, 2008). The Сonstitution of Turkmenistan is the basic law of the state. According to that law, Turkmenistan’s state mechanism is based on the principle of separation of powers into legislative, executive and judicial branches which act independently and balance each other. Constitutionally fixed norms and provisions have direct force. Laws and other legal acts that contradict the Constitution have no legal force.
People are the holder of sovereignty and the only source of power of Turkmenistan.
The state guarantees the freedom of religions and consciousness and their equality before the law. Religious organizations are separated from the state and can’t interfere into the state affairs and execute state functions. The state education system is formed separately from the religious organizations and has a secular nature.
The President of Turkmenistan is the highest official of Turkmenistan. He is at the head of the state and executive power. The President of Turkmenistan chairs the Cabinet of Ministers – the Government of Turkmenistan. The President of Turkmenistan is the guarantor of the state independence and neutral status of Turkmenistan, its territorial integrity, the observance of the Constitution and the performance of international obligations. The President of Turkmenistan is the Supreme Commander in Chief of Turkmenistan.
Legislative power is exercised by the supreme representative body – the Mejlis (Parliament) of Turkmenistan, which consists of 125 deputies, elected in accordance with the territorial election districts for the term of 5 years. The elections of the deputies of the Mejlis are carried out by the citizens of Turkmenistan on the basis of nationwide, equal and direct electoral law with secret voting and on alternative basis.
Judicial power in Turkmenistan belongs to the courts. Judicial power is meant to defend the rights and freedoms of citizens, state and public interests which are protected by the law.
The territory of Turkmenistan is equal to 491, 21 thousand km2. Its territory extends for 1100 km from the west to the east and extends for 650 km from north to south. In the north Turkmenistan borders with the Republic of Kazakhstan, in the north-east and in the east Turkmenistan has the border with the Republic of Uzbekistan, in the south-east Turkmenistan borders with the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, and in the south – with the Islamic Republic of Iran. In the west there is the Caspian Sea – the natural border, by which Turkmenistan borders with the Azerbaijan Republic.
The population of Turkmenistan is more than 6.2 million people. Turkmenistan is a multinational state. There are more than 100 nations and ethnic groups living in the country.
The Turkmen language is the state language. All citizens of Turkmenistan are granted the right to use the native language. The educational institutions of Turkmenistan ensure learning of three languages – Turkmen, English and Russian. Besides that, the higher educational institutions and some specialized training schools provide learning French, Chinese, German, Japanese and some other foreign languages.
National currency is manat, introduced into circulation on November 1, 1993. At present time the ratio of the national currency against the freely convertible currency amounts to: 3,50 manats = 1 US dollar.
The "State program of development of the banking sector of Turkmenistan for 2011-2030" was adopted and successfully implemented. In addition, under a special state program for 2012-2016 in Turkmenistan in the past few years, financial institutions in the country carried out great work on development of the securities market. Currently, the population of the country provided services for the service of Bank cards "Visa", "Visa Electron", "Visa Classic", "Visa Gold", and for legal entities –"Visa Business" cards. The banks continue work on introduction of international payment cards, in particular, the system of "Master Card" in order to establish non-cash payments in the field of trade.
Administrative territorial structure
Capital city of Turkmenistan – Ashgabat, which is the administrative-territorial unit possessing the right of the province (velayat). Ashgabat consists of 6 districts (etraps): Bagtyyarlyk district, Berkararlyk district, Kopetdag district, Archabil district, Abadan district and Rukhabat district.
Turkmenistan is divided into 5 provinces – Ahal, Balkan, Dashoguz, Lebap and Mary. Each province is divided into districts. There are 50 districts in Turkmenistan, 24 towns, including 15 towns with the right of district, 76 townships and 553 rural councils (rural municipal units) and 1903 rural settlements.
State holidays and remarkable dates of Turkmenistan
The major state and national holidays of the state:
New Year – January 1,
Day of the State Flag of Turkmenistan – February 19,
International Women’s Day – March 8,
National Spring Holiday – March 21-22,
Victory Day – May 9,
the Day of the Constitution and the Day of Revival, Unity and Poetry of Magtymguly – May 18,
Turkmenistan’s Independence Day - October 27-28,
National Holiday of Turkmenistan – the Day of Neutrality – December 12.
The certain dates of annually marked holidays Eid al-Adha and Eid al-Fitr are fixed in accordance with the decrees of the President of Turkmenistan.
National Commemoration Day – October 6.